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1 year ago

The values of both kd specific cell death

Table 2.
Kinetic and physiological parameters in AS-1404 model fitted to experimental data with GA optimization.ParameterControl experimentsTest experimentsMonod constant for cell growth, K3 (g/L)26.1920.08Inhibition constant of cell growth by glucose, Ki (g/L)83.4496.45Inhibition constant of cell growth by ethanol, K3E (g/L)49.9947.61Specific cell death rate, kd (1/h)0.0830.005Maximal specific growth rate, μm (1/h)0.460.985Constant for growth associated ethanol formation, a (g/g)2.892.99Non-growth associated specific ethanol production rate, b (g/g/h)1.991.99Average yield coefficient of cell mass on glucose, YX/G (g/g)0.0020.026Specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance requirements, m (1/h)0.2710.116Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Ethanol is a product directly associated with energy generation by microorganism, which essentially means that it is a growth associated product. However, a value of 1.99 g/g/h for constant non-zero value of constant b in Eq. (3) indicates that ethanol formation occurred during stationary phase as well, which is non-growth associated production. The model for fermentation predicts same values of constants a and b for both control and test experiments. Thus, the mode of ethanol production does not get affected by sonication. However, for both control and test experiments, value of constant a was greater than that of b, which suggested that ethanol was predominantly a growth associated product.

1 year ago

BMP assay medium Wang et al was used

BMP assay medium (Wang et al., 1994) was used. Experiments were performed according to the procedure published by Wang et al. (1994) and were carried out in triplicate in 125 ml sterile glass serum bottles. 0.5 g of filter paper, as cellulosic substrate, or 0.5 g of mechanically treated paper paste (composition: 53% of holocellulose, 32% of lignin and 15% of others compounds), as lignocellulosic substrate, were introduced into bottles containing 45 ml of BMP medium, and 5 ml of inocula. Two inocula were compared. One consisted of only AMN107 sludge and the other was a mix 50:50 of anaerobic sludge and isolated cellulolytic consortium. pH was adjusted with a 0.5 M KOH solution to achieve an initial pH 'AMN107' of 7.3 in each sample, and a maximum variation during the culture period of pH ± 1 was maintained. The sample bottles were capped tightly with rubber septa and sealed with aluminum seals. To generate the anaerobic conditions, headspace of bottles, tightly capped with rubber septa and sealed with aluminum caps, was flushed with carbon dioxide and with oxygen-free nitrogen gas in a second step. Bottles were incubated at 55 °C.

1 year ago

Table Parameters for determining heat transfer and hydrodynamic

Table 2.
λ/t value for each thermocouple installed on BP 554 test section.Thermocouple Noλ/tn11388.880.821162.790.83970.870.84833.330.85735.290.8Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
2.3. Sample preparation and characterization
Table 3.
Chemicals involved in GO preparation.MaterialMolecular formulaSourceRemarksSulfuric acidH2SO4Merck98% concentrationPhosphoric acidH3PO4Merck85% concentrationPotassium permanganateKMnO4Merck99.9% purityHydrogen peroxideH2O2Merck30% concentrationHydrogen chlorideHClSigma–Aldrich67% concentrationSodium hydroxideNaOHSigma–AldrichExpandable Graphite flakesCAsbury Graphite Mills Inc.Grade 3061 (98% purity)Tannic acidC76H52O46Friendemann Schmidt99% purityDeionized waterH2OThermo Scientific™ Barnstead™ NanoPure™ system18 MΩ resistanceFull-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Table 4.
Different carbon materials continuous variation for RGO based hybridization process.MaterialAbbreviationSourceRemarksGraphene nanoplateletsGnPXG Sciences, Inc. (Lansing, MI, USA)(grade C) specific area 500 m2/g, 2 nm thickness, 2 μm diameterMultiwall carbon nanotubeCNTNanostructured & Amorphous Materials Inc., Houston, TX, USAOD (10–30 nm) L (10–30 μm) 95% purityCarbon nanofiberCNFNanostructured & Amorphous Materials Inc., Houston, TX, USAOD (200–600 nm) L (5–50 μm) 80% purityFull-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

Discounting of investments reflects the sacrifice

The Solow–Swan growth function describing how capital and labour raise economic output has been a central doctrine in driving development in industrial societies. The main emphasis in governmental policy since the 2nd world war has been to achieve enhanced welfare through economic growth, based on raised production and consumption. Welfare is expressed annually as percentage of changes in GDP from the reference ZCL278 [10]. In this context, efficient infrastructure and advanced skills (educated work force and technology) can partially substitute labour, and raise production efficiency. Engineers therefore often use CBA to assess capital investments.
A common practice in business and societal planning is to use CBA to weigh options before investments of various scales are made [11]. Systematically, the project’s eventual impacts are catalogued as either costs or benefits. Side effects can also be listed, such as expected impacts on the environment or human health. Monetary amounts are then inserted for each of epoch and all the costs are weighed against all the benefits, usually set up in a timeline according to the expected incremental effects. The Net Present Value (NPV) is then calculated for both the costs and the benefits with discounting, using a predetermined discount rate [12]. As long as the summed benefits weigh more than the costs in terms of NPV, beyond business as usual, the project enhances the totality of utility across individuals, which is a morally correct action and raises welfare in economic terms.

1 year ago

Likewise the delay between and years

4.3. Assessment of the 2010–2013 economic and regulatory frameworks in control terms
When translating the regulatory measures of the Biotin Hydrazide 2010–2013 into an equivalent control scheme, two different subperiods split by the RDL 9/2013 must be distinguished. While the set of measures prior to the RDL 9/2013 added new elements to the existing control framework, the RDL 9/2013 dismantled the previous structure and addressed the problem with a new approach.
4.3.1. New measures for the cost reduction prior to the RDL 9/2013
Analyzing first the regulatory measures prior to the RDL 9/2013 (see Table 6), two lines of action intended for the control of the cost can be identified. On the one hand, an upper limit was put on the number of equivalent operating hours at rated power. Only the energy produced within this ceiling would be eligible for the remuneration of the RD 661/2007. Putting a cap on the energy qualifying for the remuneration amounted to bounding the cost.
On the other hand, the introduction of tolls and taxes, the elimination of tax exemptions for the energy products, the cancellation of the more advantageous premium plus pool price funding system and the FIT suppression for the percentage of energy generated with fuels can be translated into an equivalent reduction of the actual or equivalent FIT received. Limiting the equivalent FIT, the cost to the electricity system was also limited.

1 year ago

Operational conditions and results obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysis of

Glucan to AR-12 conversion (CG, glucose/potential glucose, in percentage) is defined as the ratio between glucose generated in the enzymatic hydrolysis and potential glucose (that corresponds to the total conversion of glucan into glucose without degradation). Xylan to xylose conversion (CX, xylose/potential xylose, in percentage) can be defined in a similar way.
Conversion variation with time in an enzymatic hydrolysis has been modeled using a simple empirical model (Holtzapple et al., 1984) which parameters help to study the process:equation(2)CG=CGMAX·tt+t1/2Gequation(3)CX=CXMAX·tt+t1/2Xwhere CGMAX (%) and CXMAX (%) are the glucose and xylose conversions, respectively, at an infinite reaction time, and t1/2G (h) and t1/2X (h) are the time needed to achieve 50% of CGMAX or CXMAX, respectively. The first set of parameters (CGMAX, CXMAX) measures the maximum possible enzymatic conversion with these operational conditions and the set of parameters (t1/2G, t1/2X) measures the kinetic of the hydrolysis. Both types of parameters have special interest in this study.

1 year ago

On the other hand the OSOP adapts very well

The simulation results for two different operating regions (low and high wind speed) are depicted in Fig. 12, Fig. 13, Fig. 14, Fig. 15 and Fig. 16. Fig. 12 shows the injected power to the grid by the WT. The effect of adaptive shaping.parameters on the injected power, in the case of OSOP, is clearly visible. With change in operating point, the maximum injected power (a1), power level during acceleration A769662 (a2), duration (ta1 and ta2) and slope of power decay and rise (dx1 and dx2) are adapted to optimize the energy transfer.
Fig. 12. Step change in load is applied at t = 5 s. Active Power Injected by WT with different inertia emulating architectures: a) Low wind speed b) High wind speed.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 13. Change in WT rotor speed following the disturbance with different inertia emulating architectures: a) Low wind speed b) High wind speed.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

1 year ago

AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by the Shenzhen government

The PCR amplifications were extracted from 2% agarose gels and purified using the Agencourt® AMPure XP Beads (A63881, Beckman, USA). Then, the quality of gene library was detected using Qubit® 2.0 Fluorometer (Q32866, Invitrogen, USA) and Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (G2939AA, Agilent, USA). After that, the qualified amplifications were paired-end sequenced (2 × 250/300 nt multiplex) on an Illumina MiSeq platform at Zhejiang Institute of Microbiology (Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China) according to the standard protocols and software (Data collection software, Illumina).
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Long-term denitrification performance of the two reactors
The nitrate removal efficiency and volumetric removal rate of the two reactors during the whole experimental BMS-707035 are shown in Fig. 2. Both Reactor I and Reactor II achieved appreciable nitrate removal efficiency with an exception of stage I during which synthetic RAS wastewater was used (Fig. 2A and B). In stage I, the average denitrification rates of both reactors were approximate 0.02 kg NO3−-N m−3 d−1 (Fig. 2C and D). This result was relative lower when compared with other report that achieved approximate 0.3 kg NO3−-N m−3 d−1 denitrification rate after 70 days experiment at 25 °C (Wu et al., 2013). In this study, low temperature (19 ± 1 °C) during the start-up period might be the main reason, since it strongly affected the hydrolysis efficiency of carbon source and the activity of the denitrifying bacteria (Chu and Wang, 2013).

1 year ago

Optically transparent hard coatings from the Al

To understand the relationship between precursor infusion, film coating thickness and starting TG-101348 structure on the role of ALD on mechanical modification of polymers, we can compare the TEM results in Fig. 2 with the mechanical results in Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. Considering first the nylon materials, the TEM images in Figs. 2a and d show subsurface growth and a solid film coating after 200 cycles at 50 and 100 °C. The extent of precursor infusion may be larger at lower temperature, but more analysis would be needed to make firm conclusions. The change in modulus upon ALD treatment is the same for coatings at 50 and 100 °C, consistent with similar precursor/polymer reactions, independent of temperature. The ALD process produces a coating and infuses material into the near surface region. Because larger coating thicknesses (> 200 cycles in Fig. 6) do not substantially change the modulus, we can conclude thermacidophiles sub-surface modification is primarily responsible for the increase in film modulus. Longer treatments and thicker coatings reduce necking and promoting sample “snapping”, i.e. brittle fracture, at lower strain values. Under higher strain conditions, the cracking of the ALD overlayer coating could help induce crack formation and propagation in the polymer, leading to the observed decrease in failure strain for the coated samples.

1 year ago

An example of this is

Reliability analysis of renewable Rilpivirine equipment, in line with the RCM method, is a very complex task depending on operating and environmental conditions. This analysis considers the effects, in the equipment function, of the different failure modes degrading the equipment functionality through deviations from standard operating conditions [38]. Based on real data as historic events, this degradation can be observed or predicted following a failure curve. Due to its own complexity, this analysis is associated to quantitative tools and so it have to be mainly implemented in depth in critical equipment or equipment in which failure consequences are not admissible (due to environment, health and safety, etc.).
Parametric methods, as Weibull actuarial and graphical models (EM), are usually employed when people have enough information about failures with a regular pattern, so they can be developed to model failures resulting, most of the times, in a taylor-made suit per equipment. On the other hand, as previously it has already mentioned before the utilization of semi-parametric methods, as the widely applied Proportional Hazard Model (PHM) of Cox [37], based on a log-lineal-polynomial expression of the covariates under the assumptions of independency among them and constant with the time. While, in non-parametric methods stand out ANN methods thanks to be a self-adaptive and empirical process even with noised and non-lineal information and/or time-dependency in covariates.